In everyday speech, ATV is often used as a general term for just about any off-road-like vehicle. But did you know there is an official US definition of what constitutes an ATV and that it has six different sub-categories? And did you know states and other countries often use different terms for ATVs?
According to the current ANSI (American National Safety Institute) standard, an ATV is “a motorized off-highway vehicle designed to travel on four low-pressure or non-pneumatic tires, having a seat designed to be straddled by the operator and handlebars for steering control.”
At first, this definition may leave you with more questions than answers. One key takeaway is how it eliminates various vehicle types that don’t comply with one or several requirements.
Our goal with this post is to understand better what an ATV is and what vehicle types are not.
What Does ATV Stand For?
The acronym “ATV” stands for “All Terrain Vehicle” in the automotive industry.
Please note that this does not mean that every off-road capable vehicle is an ATV. A vehicle needs to be designed and built in a specific way to be considered an ATV.
The term ATV is also used in other industries, such as health and business, but with a different meaning.
What Does ATV Mean?
While ATV being short for All-Terrain-Vehicle, is universally accepted, the term may refer to different types of vehicles depending on where you are.
ATV Definition in the USA
In the US, the ANSI standard, including its definition of an ATV, is made mandatory on a federal level. The primary purpose of the standard is to have a nationwide set of rules on how an ATV needs to be built. All ATVs made or sold in the US need to comply with the standard.
By dissecting the standards definition of an ATV, we get a more clear perception of what type of vehicle an ATV is:
- Motorized. It needs to have a gasoline, diesel, or electric engine. This excludes any man-powered vehicle like a bicycle.
- Off-highway. The vehicle is designed for off-highway use and cannot legally be used on-road in most states, territories, and provinces of Australia, the United States, or Canada. This part of the definition excludes Jeeps and trucks primarily designed for on-road use.
- Four low-pressure or non-pneumatic tires. This part of the definition excludes motorcycles, dirtbikes, and even three-wheeled quad bikes from the ATV’s early days. It also excludes high-pressure on-road tires. Low-pressure tires are used for better traction and flotation off-road. Non-pneumatic tires (not inflated with air) are not common but can be used in operations requiring high puncture resistance.
- A seat designed to be straddled by the operator. ATVs are sit-on vehicles and not sit-ins. This means the rider sits in a straddled position on top of the bike like on a motorcycle and not inside a compartment like a car or UTV.
Any vehicle that doesn’t match these requirements is not considered an ATV by the standards definition. The ANSI standard further divides an ATV into six sub-types; two adult types and four youth types.
Adult-sized ATV types:
- Type I ATV. Designed to accommodate only the rider or operator. There is no room for an additional passenger.
- Type II ATV. Designed with a sitting pattern that accommodates both the operator or rider and a passenger.
Kids and youth-sized ATV types:
- Type Y6+ ATV. Designed for kids age 6 and up. The maximum speed is 15 mph, with a recommended speed of 10 mph or less.
- Type Y10+ ATV. Designed for kids age 10 and up. The maximum speed is 30 mph, with a recommended speed of 15 mph or less.
- Type Y12+ ATV. Designed for youth age 12 and up. The maximum speed is 30 mph, with a recommended speed of 15 mph or less.
- Type T ATV. Designed for youth age 14 and up. The maximum speed is 38 mph, with a recommended speed of 20 to 30 mph.
Then, to complicate things further, some states, in their state-level laws, use different terms to define an ATV.
For instance, in Oregon law, the term All-Terrain Vehicle includes motorcycles, 3-wheelers, quads, side-by-sides, sand rails, trucks, and SUVs. The term is divided into four different ATV classes:
- Class 1 ATV: quads (ATVs according to the ANSI definition) and 3-wheelers
- Class 2 ATV: 4x4s and sand rails (dune buggies)
- Class 3 ATV: motorcycles
- Class 4 ATV: side-by-sides (UTV, SxS)
ATV Definition in Canada
Heading up north to Canada, we were not able to find a nationwide definition of an ATV, but the term is widely used on official websites and documents. ATVs are classified as Restricted-Use Vehicles or RUVs, alongside UTVS, dirtbikes, and others. The Off-Road Vehicles Act regulates the use of ATVs, which are included in the more comprehensive Off-Road Vehicle (ORV) category.
At a province level, we discover more precise definitions of an ATV. In the province of Saskatchewan, for instance, the All Terrain Vehicles Act includes a detailed interpretation of what an ATV is and what it is not:
“In this Act:
(b) “all terrain vehicle” means a self-propelled vehicle that:
(i) is designed primarily for the movement of people or goods on unprepared surfaces; and
(ii) has wheels or tracks in contact with the ground;
(iii) a restricted use motorcycle;
(iv) a mini-bike; and
(v) an all terrain cycle;
but does not include:
(vi) a golf cart;
(vii) a snowmobile as defined in The Snowmobile Act;
(viii) an agricultural implement or special mobile machine as defined in The Traffic Safety Act ; or
(ix) any vehicle that is required to be registered pursuant to The Traffic Safety Act;”
As you can see, there is no worldwide universal definition of what types of vehicles fall under the term “ATV.” The examples above should give you a general idea but always refer to current laws and regulations in the state or country you want to ride.
What Kind of Vehicle Is an ATV?
If you’re looking for a more universal and less complex definition of what an ATV is, we recommend the one from Oxford Dictionary:
“An All Terrain Vehicle is “a small open motor vehicle with one or two seats and three or more wheels fitted with large tires, designed for use on rough ground.”
Related: 18 Typical ATV Features Explained
What Is the Full Meaning of the Word ATV?
To better understand why not everybody uses the word ATV the same way, we must take a quick look back in time.
The term All-Terrain-Vehicle and its acronym ATV date back to the sixties. It was initially used when referring to six-wheeled sit-in amphibious vehicles such as the Jiger, Amphicat, and Terra-Tiger.
Then in 1969-1970, when Honda came out with their three-wheeled all-terrain vehicle, they built on the already established ATV term and trademarked the name ATC (All-Terrain-Cycle). The ATCs shared many design features with motorcycles, such as handlebars for steering and a straddled seating position but had dual rear wheels.
To help differentiate between the new straddle-ridden ATVs and the original amphibious ATVs, the latter category was renamed AATV (Amphibious All-Terrain Vehicle). Today’s lightweight amphibious vehicles like the Argo are called XTV (Xtreme Terrain Vehicle).
The three-wheeled ATV design was prone to tipping over, and its production was eventually deceased by all manufacturers in 1987 due to safety concerns.
To help improve ATV safety, the first four-wheeled ATV was introduced in 1980, further expanding the ATV family. It was the Avenger 400 made by Adventure Vehicles and was based on the three-wheeled ATVs of the day.
As the bike-like three-wheeled ATCs got equipped with one extra wheel, making them into four-wheeled bikes, the nickname Quad or Quad Bike was born.
In 1982 Suzuki stepped in and began mass producing four-wheeled ATVs by introducing the QuadRunner LT125 as their first model.
In 1985, SVIA (Speciality Vehicle Institute of America) began working on a new ATV standard containing our current ATV definition. Its first version was approved by ANSI (American-National-Safety-Institute) in 1990. The now mandatory standard has been updated several times with more safety requirements and to reflect the development of four-wheeled ATVs.
Other Common Terms for ATVs
We have many names for the things we love, and ATVs are no exception. Here is a list of other names commonly used when referring to ATVs. Note that some terms are broader and include different vehicle types than ATVs.
- Quad or Quad Bike
- Four Wheeler or 4 Wheeler
- ORV (Off-Road Vehicle) – Canada
- LUV (Light Utility Vehicle) – New Zealand
Is a Dirt Bike an ATV?
Dirt bikes are not considered ATVs in most places but rather motorcycles.
However, in some states, dirt bikes are, legally speaking, considered a type of ATV in the eyes of the laws regulating off-road riding. Like in Oregon, where motorcycles are defined as Class 3 ATVs.
Is an ATV the Same as a Quad?
The term Quad or Quad bike originated when four-wheeled ATV bikes were first introduced.
An ATV, as defined by the ANSI standard, is essentially the same as a Quad or Quad bike. In the off-road community, the Quad term is often used when referring to rear-wheel-drive racing ATVs. In other words, a Quad is a 2WD ATV.
What Is the Difference Between an ATV and a Four-Wheeler?
In the dictionary, a four-wheeler is defined as a four-wheeled vehicle, nothing more, nothing less.
However, in the off-road community, the term four-wheeler is typically used when referring to any four-wheel drive (4×4) off-road vehicle, including jeeps and trucks modified for off-road riding, as well as four-wheel drive ATVs.
Where Quad is a term typically used for 2WD racing ATVs, the term four-wheeler is usually only used about an ATV if it has 4WD, such as most recreational and utility ATVs.
Is a 4 Wheeler Considered an ATV?
A four-wheeler is considered an ATV if it has four wheels, handlebars, and a seat designed to be straddled by the operator.
Is an ATV a Motorcycle?
In everyday speech, and according to the current ANSI definition, an ATV is not a motorcycle. However, in some states, motorcycles are implemented in the laws regulating off-road riding as their own ATV category.
In some countries where ATVs are road-legal, like in Norway, an ATV can be registered as a tractor with a speed limiter or as a motorcycle with no speed limiter.
What Is the Difference Between ATV and UTV?
ATV stands for All Terrain Vehicle, and UTV stands for Utility Terrain Vehicle.
There are several key differences between an ATV and a UTV. These are the most important ones to know.
Related: ATV vs. UTV – Which One Is Better for You?
Different Seating Position
- ATVs have a sit-on seating position with a motorcycle-style seat designed to be straddled by the rider.
- UTVs have a sit-in seating position with an automotive-style seat.
Related: This is why ATVs have Large Seats (Hint: Not for Passengers)
Different Steering and Controls
- ATVs use handlebars for steering and hand and foot levers for throttle and breaking.
- UTVs use a steering wheel for steering and a foot pedal for throttle and breaking.
Related: Beginner Guide: ATV Controls Explained (With Photos)
Different Safety Features
- ATVs offer little rider protection in case of the vehicle tips over (link)
- UTVs offer safety features such as a protective roll cage and seat belts to keep the rider safely positioned in the seat if the vehicle flips.
Related: This Is Why ATVs Don’t Have Seatbelts, but UTVs Do
What Does ATV Mean in Text?
When used in a text, the most common definition of the acronym ATV is All Terrain Vehicle. Other less common meanings include:
- All The Vibes – Acronym for anything that puts you in a good mood
- Automatic Transport Ventilator – Medical term
- Average Transaction Value – Business